America’s moderate, “mainline” Protestant churches, such as the ELCA, Episcopal, Presbyterian and United Methodist denominations, have grappled with homosexuality for more than three decades, explains Wendy Cadge of Brandeis University. The Episcopal church has seen the most turmoil. Since a gay bishop was consecrated in 2003, a few dioceses and many parishes have abandoned the church. But the march towards gay equality continues, slowly. In July the Episcopal church affirmed that all ordained positions are now open to gays.